Explore by Level

Home  »  Level 6  »  The Evolution of Cooperation

Level 6:

The Evolution of Cooperation

Axelrod, Robert

1984, January 1

evolution cooperation

The Evolution of Cooperation provides valuable insights into the age-old question of whether unforced cooperation is ever possible. Widely praised and much-discussed, this classic book explores how cooperation can emerge in a world of self-seeking egoists — whether superpowers, businesses, or individuals — when there is no central authority to police their actions.

Robert Axelrod recounts the famous computer tournaments in which the “cooperative” program Tit for Tat recorded its stunning victories, explains its application to a broad spectrum of subjects, and suggests how readers can both apply cooperative principles to their own lives and teach cooperative principles to others.

Where to Find Resource Online

A 2006 revised edition of the book can be purchased online:


Digital versions of the 1984 edition are “borrowable” if a member:

     Internet Archive

PDF Document

     The Evolution of Cooperation (1984 edition)

Greater Context

Robert Axelrod’s home page:


Filed under the following tags: psychology science

To Aid Your Exploration

Alternative News Links

These are links to news resources/blogs that are an alternative to the mainstream media.  The people behind these sites are dedicated to getting at the truth.